Antennas are the key components for far-field wireless transmission of data and power by electromagnetic (EM) radiation. These passive devices are the only radiating structures in biomedical communication systems, so its design needs to be carefully studied to ensure human safety. In this paper, we analyse and discuss the effect of wearable and implantable biomedical antennas on humans and vice versa.
The design process of these electromagnetic radiating structures in body-worn devices and implantable medical devices (IMDs), which take into consideration the human body effects and FCC/FDA safety regulations, has been demonstrated using a wearable endfire antenna on artificial magnetic conductor metasurface intended for wireless body area network communications and an implantable rectenna for far-field wireless powering. Both proposed antenna designs perform considerably well in/on the voxel model used for the human body analysis and adhere to the FCC/FDA human safety limits of specific absorption rate (SAR) and thermal heating by EM radiation.