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Fractional Order AGC for Distributed Energy Resources Using Robust Optimization

The applicability of fractional order (FO) automatic generation control (AGC) for power system frequency oscillation damping is investigated in this paper, employing distributed energy generation. The hybrid power system employs various autonomous generation systems like wind turbine, solar photovoltaic, diesel engine, fuel-cell, and aqua electrolyzer, along with other energy storage devices like the battery and flywheel. The controller is placed in a remote location while receiving and sending signals over an unreliable communication network with stochastic delay. The controller parameters are tuned using robust optimization techniques employing different variants of particle swarm optimization and are compared with the corresponding optimal solutions.

An archival-based strategy is used for reducing the number of function evaluations for the robust optimization methods. The solutions obtained through the robust optimization are able to handle higher variation in the controller gains and orders without significant decrease in the system performance. This is desirable from the FO controller implementation point of view, as the design is able to accommodate variations in the system parameter, which may result due to the approximation of FO operators using different realization methods and order of accuracy. Also a comparison is made between the FO and the integer order controllers to highlight the merits and demerits of each scheme.