Dynamic allocation of subframes to uplink (UL) or downlink (DL) in time division duplex (TDD), termed `Dynamic TDD,’ has been studied by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) since the Long Term Evolution (LTE) Release 11 timeframe. At the same time, 3GPP is also standardizing macrocell-assisted small cell heterogeneous architectures for inclusion in LTE Release 12 as a solution offering high data rate to user terminals (UEs) along with high system capacity through spatial reuse of spectrum. In this paper, we focus on a particular small cell architecture proposed by DOCOMO, known as the Phantom Cell architecture, which provides the option to support dynamic TDD. For an arbitrarily-located UE in a small cell network, we apply results from stochastic geometry to derive expressions for the distribution of DL signal to interference plus noise ratio (SINR) at an arbitrary UE and the distribution of UL SINR at its serving base station (BS).
The analytical results are verified by system level simulations. These results can be used to study aspects of system design for small cells, and the sensitivity of SINR to the extent of synchronization across small cells employing dynamic TDD. In order to deal with the severe inter-cell interference (ICI) problem in dynamic TDD, we further propose a frequency domain interference coordination technique. Finally, system level simulations based on more realistic system models and assumptions are conducted to evaluate the performance of dynamic TDD systems and the proposed interference coordination technique.